滚动条(4)

窗口滚动条的显示

用于创建窗口的 CreateWindow 函数的第三个参数可以设置 WS_HSCROLL(水平滚动条) 和 WS_VSCROLL(垂直滚动条) 这两个风格标识符,以标识窗口附带水平滚动条和(或)垂直滚动条

滚动条消息

当用户单击或拖动窗口滚动条时,Windows 向窗口过程发送 WM_HSCROLL(水平滚动) 消息或 WM_VSCROLL(垂直滚动) 消息,鼠标按下与鼠标松开都会产生这些消息(即一个动作至少会产生两条消息)。消息伴随着消息参数,lParam 的值为滚动条的句柄(当是窗口的滚动条时,此值为 NULL 可以忽略),wParam 的低位字代表鼠标在滚动条上的动作:

向上(左)滚动一行:SB_LINEUP

向下(右)滚动一行:SB_LINEDOWN

向上(左)滚动一页:SB_PAGEUP

向下(右)滚动一页:SB_PAGEDOWN

拖动滚动条不放:SB_THUMBTRACK(一直发送),wParam 的高位字是用户拖动滑块的当前位置

拖动滚动条时释放鼠标:SB_THUMBPOSITION,wParam 的高位字是松开鼠标键时,滑块的最终位置

松开鼠标键时:SB_ENDSCROLL

滚动条的范围和位置

调用 SetScrollRange 函数可以设置滚动条的范围:

BOOL SetScrollRange(          
    HWND hWnd,    // 窗口的句柄
    int nBar,     // 滚动条类型(SB_VERT 或 SB_HORZ)
    int nMinPos,  // 最小位置
    int nMaxPos,  // 最大位置
    BOOL bRedraw  // 是否需要 Windows 根据新的范围来重绘滚动条(若编程时调用其它函数来调整滚动条的显示,则最好设为FALSE,避免过多重绘)
);

调用 SetScrollPos 函数可以调整滚动条的位置:

int SetScrollPos(          
    HWND hWnd,    // 窗口的句柄
    int nBar,     // 滚动条类型(SB_VERT 或 SB_HORZ)
    int nPos,     // 要设置的滚动条的位置(必须在最小位置和最大位置之间)
    BOOL bRedraw  // 是否需要 Windows 根据新的范围来重绘滚动条(若编程时调用其它函数来调整滚动条的显示,则最好设为FALSE,避免过多重绘)
);

调用 GetScrollRange 函数可以获取滚动条的范围:

BOOL GetScrollRange(
    HWND hWnd,
    int nBar,
    LPINT lpMinPos,    // 最小位置
    LPINT lpMaxPos    // 最大位置
);

调用 GetScrollPos函数可以获取滚动条的位置:

int GetScrollPos(
    HWND hWnd,
    int nBar
);

滚动条编程要点

Windows 负责的部分:

  • 处理所有鼠标消息
  • 单击滚动条时,提供反向显示的闪烁
  • 拖动滑块时,显示滑块在滚动条内移动
  • 向窗口过程发送滚动条消息

程序负责的部分:

  • 初始化滚动条的范围和位置
  • 处理窗口过程的滚动条消息
  • 更新滑块的位置
  • 根据滚动条变化更新客户区的内容

滚动条的改良

  • SCROLLINFO 结构用于存放滚动条信息,其定义如下:
typedef struct tagSCROLLINFO { 
    UINT cbSize;     // 设为 sizeof (SCROLLINFO)
    UINT fMask;      // 要设置和获取的值 
    int  nMin;       // 范围的最小值
    int  nMax;       // 范围的最大值
    UINT nPage;      // 页面大小
    int  nPos;       // 当前位置
    int  nTrackPos;  // 当前追踪位置
}   SCROLLINFO, *LPSCROLLINFO; 
typedef SCROLLINFO CONST *LPCSCROLLINFO;

cbSize 字段表示该结构的大小,通常被填充为 sizeof(SCROLLINFO) ,这样方便新版本的 Windows 扩充字段。

fMask 字段把 SIF 为前缀的标志用位或组合起来,表示设置和获取的值。

SIF_RANGE:该标志表示滚动条范围,此时 nMin、nMax 有效

SIF_POS:该标志表示滚动条位置,此时 nPos 有效

SIF_PAGE:该标志表示页面大小,此时 nPage 有效

SIF_TRACKPOS:该标志表示当前滑块的位置(只用于 GetScrollInfo 中,只在 SB_THUMBTRACK 和 SB_THUMBPOSITION 有效),nTrackPos 有效

SIF_DISABLENOSCROLL:该标志表示当滚动条不显示时,显示禁用的滚动条样式

SIF_ALL:该标志是 SIF_RANGE、SIF_POS、SIF_PAGE、SIF_TRACKPOS 的组合

  • SetScrollInfo 函数用于设置滚动条信息:
int SetScrollInfo(          
    HWND hwnd,          // 当前窗口句柄
    int fnBar,          // 滚动条类型(SB_VERT 或者 SB_HORZ)
    LPCSCROLLINFO lpsi, // SCROLLINFO 结构的地址
    BOOL fRedraw        // 是否重绘的标志
);
  • GetScrollInfo 函数用于获取滚动条信息:
BOOL GetScrollInfo(          
    HWND hwnd,          // 当前窗口句柄
    int fnBar,          // 滚动条类型(SB_VERT 或者 SB_HORZ)
    LPCSCROLLINFO lpsi, // SCROLLINFO 结构的地址
);
  • ScrollWindow 函数用于滚动窗口客户区内容:
BOOL ScrollWindow(
    HWND hWnd,             // 当前窗口句柄
    int XAmount,           // 水平滚动量,为负则向左滚动
    int YAmount,           // 垂直滚动量,为负则向上滚动
    const RECT *lpRect,    // 指定滚动客户区矩形的范围
    const RECT *lpClipRect // 指定滚动的裁剪区域
);

最终版 SYSMET 程序示例

  • SYSMET.h 源代码:
/*-----------------------------------------------
   SYSMETS.H -- System metrics display structure
  -----------------------------------------------*/

#define NUMLINES ((int) (sizeof sysmetrics / sizeof sysmetrics [0]))

struct
{
     int     iIndex ;
     TCHAR * szLabel ;
     TCHAR * szDesc ;
} 
sysmetrics [] =
{
     SM_CXSCREEN,             TEXT ("SM_CXSCREEN"),              
                              TEXT ("Screen width in pixels"),
     SM_CYSCREEN,             TEXT ("SM_CYSCREEN"),              
                              TEXT ("Screen height in pixels"),
     SM_CXVSCROLL,            TEXT ("SM_CXVSCROLL"),             
                              TEXT ("Vertical scroll width"),
     SM_CYHSCROLL,            TEXT ("SM_CYHSCROLL"),             
                              TEXT ("Horizontal scroll height"),
     SM_CYCAPTION,            TEXT ("SM_CYCAPTION"),             
                              TEXT ("Caption bar height"),
     SM_CXBORDER,             TEXT ("SM_CXBORDER"),              
                              TEXT ("Window border width"),
     SM_CYBORDER,             TEXT ("SM_CYBORDER"),              
                              TEXT ("Window border height"),
     SM_CXFIXEDFRAME,         TEXT ("SM_CXFIXEDFRAME"),          
                              TEXT ("Dialog window frame width"),
     SM_CYFIXEDFRAME,         TEXT ("SM_CYFIXEDFRAME"),          
                              TEXT ("Dialog window frame height"),
     SM_CYVTHUMB,             TEXT ("SM_CYVTHUMB"),              
                              TEXT ("Vertical scroll thumb height"),
     SM_CXHTHUMB,             TEXT ("SM_CXHTHUMB"),              
                              TEXT ("Horizontal scroll thumb width"),
     SM_CXICON,               TEXT ("SM_CXICON"),                
                              TEXT ("Icon width"),
     SM_CYICON,               TEXT ("SM_CYICON"),                
                              TEXT ("Icon height"),
     SM_CXCURSOR,             TEXT ("SM_CXCURSOR"),              
                              TEXT ("Cursor width"),
     SM_CYCURSOR,             TEXT ("SM_CYCURSOR"),              
                              TEXT ("Cursor height"),
     SM_CYMENU,               TEXT ("SM_CYMENU"),                
                              TEXT ("Menu bar height"),
     SM_CXFULLSCREEN,         TEXT ("SM_CXFULLSCREEN"),          
                              TEXT ("Full screen client area width"),
     SM_CYFULLSCREEN,         TEXT ("SM_CYFULLSCREEN"),          
                              TEXT ("Full screen client area height"),
     SM_CYKANJIWINDOW,        TEXT ("SM_CYKANJIWINDOW"),         
                              TEXT ("Kanji window height"),
     SM_MOUSEPRESENT,         TEXT ("SM_MOUSEPRESENT"),          
                              TEXT ("Mouse present flag"),
     SM_CYVSCROLL,            TEXT ("SM_CYVSCROLL"),             
                              TEXT ("Vertical scroll arrow height"),
     SM_CXHSCROLL,            TEXT ("SM_CXHSCROLL"),             
                              TEXT ("Horizontal scroll arrow width"),
     SM_DEBUG,                TEXT ("SM_DEBUG"),                 
                              TEXT ("Debug version flag"),
     SM_SWAPBUTTON,           TEXT ("SM_SWAPBUTTON"),            
                              TEXT ("Mouse buttons swapped flag"),
     SM_CXMIN,                TEXT ("SM_CXMIN"),                 
                              TEXT ("Minimum window width"),
     SM_CYMIN,                TEXT ("SM_CYMIN"),                 
                              TEXT ("Minimum window height"),
     SM_CXSIZE,               TEXT ("SM_CXSIZE"),                
                              TEXT ("Min/Max/Close button width"),
     SM_CYSIZE,               TEXT ("SM_CYSIZE"),                
                              TEXT ("Min/Max/Close button height"),
     SM_CXSIZEFRAME,          TEXT ("SM_CXSIZEFRAME"),           
                              TEXT ("Window sizing frame width"),
     SM_CYSIZEFRAME,          TEXT ("SM_CYSIZEFRAME"),           
                              TEXT ("Window sizing frame height"),
     SM_CXMINTRACK,           TEXT ("SM_CXMINTRACK"),            
                              TEXT ("Minimum window tracking width"),
     SM_CYMINTRACK,           TEXT ("SM_CYMINTRACK"),            
                              TEXT ("Minimum window tracking height"),
     SM_CXDOUBLECLK,          TEXT ("SM_CXDOUBLECLK"),           
                              TEXT ("Double click x tolerance"),
     SM_CYDOUBLECLK,          TEXT ("SM_CYDOUBLECLK"),           
                              TEXT ("Double click y tolerance"),
     SM_CXICONSPACING,        TEXT ("SM_CXICONSPACING"),         
                              TEXT ("Horizontal icon spacing"),
     SM_CYICONSPACING,        TEXT ("SM_CYICONSPACING"),         
                              TEXT ("Vertical icon spacing"),
     SM_MENUDROPALIGNMENT,    TEXT ("SM_MENUDROPALIGNMENT"),     
                              TEXT ("Left or right menu drop"),
     SM_PENWINDOWS,           TEXT ("SM_PENWINDOWS"),            
                              TEXT ("Pen extensions installed"),
     SM_DBCSENABLED,          TEXT ("SM_DBCSENABLED"),           
                              TEXT ("Double-Byte Char Set enabled"),
     SM_CMOUSEBUTTONS,        TEXT ("SM_CMOUSEBUTTONS"),         
                              TEXT ("Number of mouse buttons"),
     SM_SECURE,               TEXT ("SM_SECURE"),                
                              TEXT ("Security present flag"),
     SM_CXEDGE,               TEXT ("SM_CXEDGE"),                
                              TEXT ("3-D border width"),
     SM_CYEDGE,               TEXT ("SM_CYEDGE"),                
                              TEXT ("3-D border height"),
     SM_CXMINSPACING,         TEXT ("SM_CXMINSPACING"),          
                              TEXT ("Minimized window spacing width"),
     SM_CYMINSPACING,         TEXT ("SM_CYMINSPACING"),          
                              TEXT ("Minimized window spacing height"),
     SM_CXSMICON,             TEXT ("SM_CXSMICON"),              
                              TEXT ("Small icon width"),
     SM_CYSMICON,             TEXT ("SM_CYSMICON"),              
                              TEXT ("Small icon height"),
     SM_CYSMCAPTION,          TEXT ("SM_CYSMCAPTION"),           
                              TEXT ("Small caption height"),
     SM_CXSMSIZE,             TEXT ("SM_CXSMSIZE"),              
                              TEXT ("Small caption button width"),
     SM_CYSMSIZE,             TEXT ("SM_CYSMSIZE"),              
                              TEXT ("Small caption button height"),
     SM_CXMENUSIZE,           TEXT ("SM_CXMENUSIZE"),            
                              TEXT ("Menu bar button width"),
     SM_CYMENUSIZE,           TEXT ("SM_CYMENUSIZE"),            
                              TEXT ("Menu bar button height"),
     SM_ARRANGE,              TEXT ("SM_ARRANGE"),               
                              TEXT ("How minimized windows arranged"),
     SM_CXMINIMIZED,          TEXT ("SM_CXMINIMIZED"),           
                              TEXT ("Minimized window width"),
     SM_CYMINIMIZED,          TEXT ("SM_CYMINIMIZED"),           
                              TEXT ("Minimized window height"),
     SM_CXMAXTRACK,           TEXT ("SM_CXMAXTRACK"),            
                              TEXT ("Maximum dragable width"),
     SM_CYMAXTRACK,           TEXT ("SM_CYMAXTRACK"),            
                              TEXT ("Maximum dragable height"),
     SM_CXMAXIMIZED,          TEXT ("SM_CXMAXIMIZED"),           
                              TEXT ("Width of maximized window"),
     SM_CYMAXIMIZED,          TEXT ("SM_CYMAXIMIZED"),           
                              TEXT ("Height of maximized window"),
     SM_NETWORK,              TEXT ("SM_NETWORK"),               
                              TEXT ("Network present flag"),
     SM_CLEANBOOT,            TEXT ("SM_CLEANBOOT"),             
                              TEXT ("How system was booted"),
     SM_CXDRAG,               TEXT ("SM_CXDRAG"),                
                              TEXT ("Avoid drag x tolerance"),
     SM_CYDRAG,               TEXT ("SM_CYDRAG"),                
                              TEXT ("Avoid drag y tolerance"),
     SM_SHOWSOUNDS,           TEXT ("SM_SHOWSOUNDS"),            
                              TEXT ("Present sounds visually"),
     SM_CXMENUCHECK,          TEXT ("SM_CXMENUCHECK"),           
                              TEXT ("Menu check-mark width"),
     SM_CYMENUCHECK,          TEXT ("SM_CYMENUCHECK"),           
                              TEXT ("Menu check-mark height"),
     SM_SLOWMACHINE,          TEXT ("SM_SLOWMACHINE"),           
                              TEXT ("Slow processor flag"),
     SM_MIDEASTENABLED,       TEXT ("SM_MIDEASTENABLED"),        
                              TEXT ("Hebrew and Arabic enabled flag"),
     SM_MOUSEWHEELPRESENT,    TEXT ("SM_MOUSEWHEELPRESENT"),     
                              TEXT ("Mouse wheel present flag"),
     SM_XVIRTUALSCREEN,       TEXT ("SM_XVIRTUALSCREEN"),        
                              TEXT ("Virtual screen x origin"),
     SM_YVIRTUALSCREEN,       TEXT ("SM_YVIRTUALSCREEN"),        
                              TEXT ("Virtual screen y origin"),
     SM_CXVIRTUALSCREEN,      TEXT ("SM_CXVIRTUALSCREEN"),       
                              TEXT ("Virtual screen width"),
     SM_CYVIRTUALSCREEN,      TEXT ("SM_CYVIRTUALSCREEN"),       
                              TEXT ("Virtual screen height"),
     SM_CMONITORS,            TEXT ("SM_CMONITORS"),             
                              TEXT ("Number of monitors"),
     SM_SAMEDISPLAYFORMAT,    TEXT ("SM_SAMEDISPLAYFORMAT"),     
                              TEXT ("Same color format flag")
} ;
  • SYSMET.c 源代码:
#include 
#include 
#include "SysMets.h"

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) {

    HDC hdc;
    PAINTSTRUCT ps;
    TEXTMETRIC tm;
    static int cxChar, cxCaps, cyChar, cxClient, cyClient, iMaxWidth;
    int iVertPos, iHorzPos, iBeginLine, iEndLine, i, x, y;
    size_t nLength;
    SCROLLINFO si;
    TCHAR szBuffer[100];

    switch (message) {
    case WM_CREATE:
        hdc = GetDC(hwnd);

        GetTextMetrics(hdc, &tm);
        cxChar = tm.tmAveCharWidth;
        cxCaps = (tm.tmPitchAndFamily & 1 ? 3 : 2) * cxChar / 2;
        cyChar = tm.tmHeight + tm.tmExternalLeading;

        iMaxWidth = cxCaps * 22 + cxChar * 40;

        ReleaseDC(hwnd, hdc);
        return 0;

    case WM_SIZE:
        cxClient = LOWORD(lParam);
        cyClient = HIWORD(lParam);

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_RANGE | SIF_PAGE | SIF_DISABLENOSCROLL;
        si.nMin = 0;
        si.nMax = NUMLINES - 1;
        si.nPage = cyClient / cyChar;
        SetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_VERT, &si, TRUE);

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_RANGE | SIF_PAGE | SIF_DISABLENOSCROLL;
        si.nMin = 0;
        si.nMax = iMaxWidth / cxChar + 5;
        si.nPage = cxClient / cxChar;
        SetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_HORZ, &si, TRUE);

        return 0;

    case WM_VSCROLL:

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_ALL;
        GetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_VERT, &si);
        iVertPos = si.nPos;

        switch (LOWORD(wParam)) {
        case SB_LINEUP:
            si.nPos -= 1;
            break;

        case SB_LINEDOWN:
            si.nPos += 1;
            break;

        case SB_PAGEUP:
            si.nPos -= si.nPage;
            break;

        case SB_PAGEDOWN:
            si.nPos += si.nPage;
            break;

        case SB_THUMBTRACK:
            si.nPos = si.nTrackPos;
            break;
        }

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_POS;
        SetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_VERT, &si, TRUE);
        GetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_VERT, &si);

        if (si.nPos != iVertPos) {
            ScrollWindow(hwnd, 0, cyChar * (iVertPos - si.nPos), NULL, NULL);
        }

        return 0;

    case WM_HSCROLL:

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_ALL;
        GetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_HORZ, &si);
        iHorzPos = si.nPos;

        switch (LOWORD(wParam)) {
        case SB_LINELEFT:
            si.nPos -= 1;
            break;

        case SB_LINERIGHT:
            si.nPos += 1;
            break;

        case SB_PAGELEFT:
            si.nPos -= si.nPage;
            break;

        case SB_PAGERIGHT:
            si.nPos += si.nPage;
            break;

        case SB_THUMBTRACK:
            si.nPos = si.nTrackPos;
            break;
        }

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_POS;
        SetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_HORZ, &si, TRUE);
        GetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_HORZ, &si);

        if (si.nPos != iHorzPos) {
            ScrollWindow(hwnd, cxChar * (iHorzPos - si.nPos), 0, NULL, NULL);
        }

        return 0;

    case WM_PAINT:
        hdc = BeginPaint(hwnd, &ps);

        si.cbSize = sizeof(si);
        si.fMask = SIF_ALL;
        GetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_VERT, &si);
        iVertPos = si.nPos;
        GetScrollInfo(hwnd, SB_HORZ, &si);
        iHorzPos = si.nPos;

        // Control the line range
        iBeginLine = max(0, iVertPos + (ps.rcPaint.top / cyChar));
        iEndLine = min(NUMLINES - 1, iVertPos + (ps.rcPaint.bottom / cyChar));

        for (i = iBeginLine; i <= iEndLine; i++) {
            x = cxChar * (1 - iHorzPos);
            y = cyChar * (i - iVertPos);

            StringCchPrintf(szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer) / sizeof(TCHAR), sysmetrics[i].szLabel);
            StringCchLength(szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer) / sizeof(TCHAR), &nLength);
            TextOut(hdc, x, y, szBuffer, nLength);

            StringCchPrintf(szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer) / sizeof(TCHAR), sysmetrics[i].szDesc);
            StringCchLength(szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer) / sizeof(TCHAR), &nLength);
            TextOut(hdc, x + cxCaps * 22, y, szBuffer, nLength);

            StringCchPrintf(szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer) / sizeof(TCHAR), TEXT("%5d"), sysmetrics[i].iIndex);
            StringCchLength(szBuffer, sizeof(szBuffer) / sizeof(TCHAR), &nLength);
            TextOut(hdc, x + cxCaps * 22 + cxChar * 40, y, szBuffer, nLength);
        }

        EndPaint(hwnd, &ps);
        return 0;

    case WM_CLOSE:
        if (MessageBox(hwnd, TEXT("Do you really want to quit?"), TEXT("Please confirm:"), MB_ICONQUESTION | MB_OKCANCEL) == IDOK) {
            DestroyWindow(hwnd);
        }
        return 0;

    case WM_DESTROY:
        PostQuitMessage(0);
        return 0;
    }

    return DefWindowProc(hwnd, message, wParam, lParam);
}

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow) {
    LPCTSTR lpszClassName = TEXT("ScrollDemo");
    LPCTSTR lpszWindowName = TEXT("Scroll Demo");

    WNDCLASS wndclass;
    wndclass.cbClsExtra = 0;
    wndclass.cbWndExtra = 0;
    wndclass.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)GetStockObject(WHITE_BRUSH);
    wndclass.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
    wndclass.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wndclass.hInstance = hInstance;
    wndclass.lpfnWndProc = WndProc;
    wndclass.lpszClassName = lpszClassName;
    wndclass.lpszMenuName = NULL;
    wndclass.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;

    if (!RegisterClass(&wndclass)) {
        MessageBox(NULL, TEXT("This program requires Windows NT!"), lpszWindowName, MB_ICONERROR);
        return 0;
    }

    HWND hwnd = CreateWindow(
        lpszClassName,
        lpszWindowName,
        WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW | WS_VSCROLL | WS_HSCROLL,
        CW_USEDEFAULT,
        CW_USEDEFAULT,
        CW_USEDEFAULT,
        CW_USEDEFAULT,
        NULL,
        NULL,
        hInstance,
        NULL
    );

    ShowWindow(hwnd, nCmdShow);
    UpdateWindow(hwnd);

    MSG msg;
    while (GetMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0)) {
        TranslateMessage(&msg);
        DispatchMessage(&msg);
    }

    return msg.wParam;
}

滚动条小结

总的来说,SYSMET 程序可以细分为如下结构:

对 WM_CREATE 的消息的响应,获取系统字符的各个参数。

对 WM_SIZE 消息的响应,改变水平滚动条和垂直滚动条的范围(nMin、nMax)和页面大小(nPage)

对 WM_VSCROLL 消息的响应,根据 LOWORD(wParam) 改变垂直滚动条滑块的位置(nPos),并根据位置变化的偏移量,滚动客户区(ScrollWindow)

对 WM_HSCROLL 消息的响应,根据 LOWORD(wParam) 改变水平滚动条滑块的位置(nPos),并根据位置变化的偏移量,滚动客户区(ScrollWindow)

对 WM_PAINT 消息的响应,根据滚动条滑块位置和 PAINTSTRUCT 的 rcPaint 无效矩形区域信息计算出,文本绘制的开始行(iBeginLine)和结束行(iEndLine);并根据滚动条滑块位置,计算出文本输出的起始水平位置(x)和垂直位置(y),并输出文本(TextOut)

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